Optical communication and networking by gayathri pdf

 
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  1. EC6702-Optical Communication and Networks.pdf
  2. Optical Communication And Networking By Gayathri Pdf Download by siodenadin - Issuu
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  4. Optical communication and networks Notes ECE

Optical Communication and Networking. Class.: IV Year ECE being prepared by me and it meets the knowledge requirement of the university curriculum. The fourth Year,seventh semester Anna University notes for Optical Communication and Networking (Subject Code: EC) is made. Optical Communication And Networking by cicenorthlare.gababu from Lakshmi Publications, EC Optical communication and networks Notes.

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Optical Communication And Networking By Gayathri Pdf

Define a fiber optic system. Fiber optic system consists of a fiber optic cable, a light source and a light detector. The optic fiber is used to carry. OPTICAL COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING. 2 Marks Questions and Answers. UNIT - 1 - INTRODUCTION. 1. Define a fiber optic system. Fiber optic. [PDF] EC Optical Communication and Networks (OCN) Books, Lecture Notes, 2marks with answers, Important Part B 16marks Questions, Question Bank &.

Please enable javascript in your browser and download Adobe Flash player to view.. download Optical Networks. Easy - Download and. Power your grid with a security-rich communications network solution.. Optical FibersEvolution of fiber optic system - Element of an optical fiber transmission link - Ray optics - Optical fiber modes and configurations - Mode theory of.. The horizons of optical networks are much more than high speed physical layer transport. An Introduction Vijay K.. The third edition of Optical Networks. It serves as your guide at every step of optical networking. Optical fibres, cables and systems Printed in. As we approach the half century mark for the dawn of the era of optical communications,. Optical Networks,..

Define relative refractive index difference. Define Numerical aperture of a step index fiber. Nov 14 Numerical aperture N. A of the fiber is the light collecting capability of the fiber and is the measure of the amount of light rays that can be accepted by the fiber. It is equal to the sine of acceptance angle.

Give the expression for numerical aperture in graded index fibers. What is an index profile? The index profile of an optical fiber is a graphical representation of the magnitude of the refractive index across the fiber.

Define Mode-field diameter. The mode-field diameter MFD is the fundamental parameter of a single mode fiber.

EC6702-Optical Communication and Networks.pdf

This can be determined from the mode field distribution of the fundamental LP01 mode. Why do we prefer step index single mode fiber for long distance communication?

Or List the advantages of single mode fibers. Nov 14 Step index single mode fiber has a low attenuation due to smaller core diameter b higher bandwidth and c very low dispersion. What is tunnel effect? The leaky modes are continuously radiating their power out of the core as they propagate along the fiber. This power radiation out of the waveguide due to a quantum mechanical phenomenon is known as the tunnel effect. What is the principle used in the working of fibers as light guides?

The phenomenon of total internal reflection is used to guide the light in the optical fiber. To get total internal reflection, the ray should travel from denser to rarer i. From core to clad region of the fiber and the angle of incidence in the denser medium should be greater than the critical angle of that medium.

What are step index and graded index fibers? If the refractive index of the core in a fiber is uniform throughout and undergoes abrupt change or step at the cladding boundary, it is called step index fiber. The light propagation is mainly by meridional rays. If the refractive index of the core in a fiber is made to vary as a function of the radial distance from the centre of the fiber, it is called graded index fiber, i.

The refractive index decreases as the radial distance increases. Here the light propagation is by skew rays. What are leaky modes in optical fibers?

Leaky modes are the modes that are partially confined to the core region and attenuate continuously by radiating their power out of the core as they propagate along the fiber. What is V number or normalized frequency of fiber?

Nov V number of fiber or normalized frequency of fiber is used to find the number of propagating modes through the fiber. What are meridional rays? Meridional rays are the rays which follow the Zig Zag path when they travel through fiber and for every reflection they will cross the fiber axis. What are skew rays? Skew rays are the rays which follow the helical path around the fiber axis when they travel through the fiber and they would not cross the fiber axis at any time.

Optical Communication And Networking By Gayathri Pdf Download by siodenadin - Issuu

What is fiber birefringence? Fiber imperfections such as asymmetrical lateral stress, non circular imperfect variations of refractive index profile break the circular symmetry of ideal fiber and modes propagate with different phase velocity and the difference between their refractive index is called fiber birefringence. Define phase velocity. For plane waves, the constant phase points form a surface called wave front.

Define group velocity. The light energy is composed of a sum of plane wave components of different frequencies. When a group of waves with closely similar frequencies propagate, their resultant forms a packet of waves.

What is a wave front? Within all electromagnetic waves, there are points of constant phase.

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For plane waves these constant phase points form a surface called wave front. Define wavelength. Wavelength is the distance travelled by one cycle of an electromagnetic wave. Mention the losses responsible for attenuation in optical fibers.

Absorption losses, scattering losses and radiative losses 2. Define fiber loss or signal attenuation. Attenuation is a measure of decay of signal strength or loss of light power that occurs as light pulses propagate through the length of the fiber. It helps to determine the maximum transmission distance between a transmitter and a receiver. What are the three different mechanisms which cause absorption? Absorption by atomic defects in the glass composition 2.

Extrinsic absorption by impurity atoms in the glass material 3. Intrinsic absorption by the basic constituent atoms of the fiber material. What do you mean by extrinsic absorption?

Absorption phenomena due to impurity atoms present in the fiber. Mention the factors that cause Scattering losses. Scattering losses in glasses arise from 1. Microscopic variations in the material density 2.

Compositional fluctuations 3. Structural inhomogeneities or defects occurring during fiber manufacture. What are the types of scattering losses? A Linear scattering loss 1.

Rayleigh scattering 2. Mie scattering b Non-Linear scattering 1. Stimulated Brillouin scattering 2. What is Rayleigh scattering? Due to Microscopic variations in the material density and compositional fluctuations, there will be refractive index variations within the glass. This index variation causes a Rayleigh type of scattering of light. Rayleigh scattering in glass is the same phenomenon that scatters light from sun in the atmosphere, giving rise to a blue sky.

Write the expression for the refractive index in graded index fibers. What is the necessity of cladding for an optical fiber? A To provide proper light guidance inside the core b To avoid leakage of light from the fiber c To provide mechanical strength for the fiber d To protect the core from scratches and other mechanical damages e To protect the core from absorbing surface contaminants Define relative refractive index difference.

Define Numerical aperture of a step index fiber. Nov 14 Numerical aperture N. A of the fiber is the light collecting capability of the fiber and is the measure of the amount of light rays that can be accepted by the fiber. It is equal to the sine of acceptance angle. Give the expression for numerical aperture in graded index fibers. What is an index profile? The index profile of an optical fiber is a graphical representation of the magnitude of the refractive index across the fiber.

Define Mode-field diameter. The mode-field diameter MFD is the fundamental parameter of a single mode fiber. This can be determined from the mode field distribution of the fundamental LP01 mode.

Optical communication and networks Notes ECE

Why do we prefer step index single mode fiber for long distance communication? Or List the advantages of single mode fibers.

Nov 14 Step index single mode fiber has a low attenuation due to smaller core diameter b higher bandwidth and c very low dispersion. What is tunnel effect? The leaky modes are continuously radiating their power out of the core as they propagate along the fiber.

This power radiation out of the waveguide due to a quantum mechanical phenomenon is known as the tunnel effect. What is the principle used in the working of fibers as light guides? The phenomenon of total internal reflection is used to guide the light in the optical fiber.

To get total internal reflection, the ray should travel from denser to rarer i. From core to clad region of the fiber and the angle of incidence in the denser medium should be greater than the critical angle of that medium. What are step index and graded index fibers?

If the refractive index of the core in a fiber is uniform throughout and undergoes abrupt change or step at the cladding boundary, it is called step index fiber. The light propagation is mainly by meridional rays. If the refractive index of the core in a fiber is made to vary as a function of the radial distance from the centre of the fiber, it is called graded index fiber, i. The refractive index decreases as the radial distance increases.

Here the light propagation is by skew rays. What are leaky modes in optical fibers? Leaky modes are the modes that are partially confined to the core region and attenuate continuously by radiating their power out of the core as they propagate along the fiber.

What is V number or normalized frequency of fiber? Nov V number of fiber or normalized frequency of fiber is used to find the number of propagating modes through the fiber. What are meridional rays? Meridional rays are the rays which follow the Zig Zag path when they travel through fiber and for every reflection they will cross the fiber axis.

What are skew rays? Skew rays are the rays which follow the helical path around the fiber axis when they travel through the fiber and they would not cross the fiber axis at any time.

What is fiber birefringence? Fiber imperfections such as asymmetrical lateral stress, non circular imperfect variations of refractive index profile break the circular symmetry of ideal fiber and modes propagate with different phase velocity and the difference between their refractive index is called fiber birefringence. Define phase velocity. For plane waves, the constant phase points form a surface called wave front. Define group velocity. The light energy is composed of a sum of plane wave components of different frequencies.

When a group of waves with closely similar frequencies propagate, their resultant forms a packet of waves. What is a wave front? Within all electromagnetic waves, there are points of constant phase. For plane waves these constant phase points form a surface called wave front. Define wavelength.

Wavelength is the distance travelled by one cycle of an electromagnetic wave. Mention the losses responsible for attenuation in optical fibers. Absorption losses, scattering losses and radiative losses 2. Define fiber loss or signal attenuation. Attenuation is a measure of decay of signal strength or loss of light power that occurs as light pulses propagate through the length of the fiber. It helps to determine the maximum transmission distance between a transmitter and a receiver.

What are the three different mechanisms which cause absorption? Absorption by atomic defects in the glass composition 2. Extrinsic absorption by impurity atoms in the glass material 3. Intrinsic absorption by the basic constituent atoms of the fiber material.

What do you mean by extrinsic absorption? Absorption phenomena due to impurity atoms present in the fiber. Mention the factors that cause Scattering losses. Scattering losses in glasses arise from 1.

Microscopic variations in the material density 2. Compositional fluctuations 3. Structural inhomogeneities or defects occurring during fiber manufacture. Just take a look. Question Papers.

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